The encryption scheme used for second generation (2G) mobile phone data can be hacked within seconds by exploiting weaknesses and using common hardware, researches at Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, show. The ease of the attack shows an urgent need for the 2G Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) encryption scheme to be updated.
GSM was first deployed 25 years ago and has since become the global standard for mobile communications, used in nearly every country and comprising more than 90 per cent of the global user base.
“GSM uses an encryption scheme called the A5/1 stream cipher to protect data,” explains Jiqiang Lu from the A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research. “A5/1 uses a 64-bit secret key and a complex keystream generator to make it resistant to elementary attacks such as exhaustive key searches and dictionary attacks.”
Any encryption scheme can be hacked given sufficient time and data, so security engineers usually try to create an encryption scheme that would demand an unfeasible amount of time to crack. But, as GSM gets older, weaknesses in the A5/1 cipher and advances in technology have rendered GSM communications susceptible to attack.
Straightforward ‘brute force’ attacks by guessing the secret key from the data stream are still intensively time consuming, and although A5/1 was reported to have been successfully attacked in 2010, the details of the attack were kept secret. By exploiting weaknesses in the A5/1 cipher, Lu and his colleagues have now demonstrated the first real-time attack using a relatively small amount of data.
“We used a rainbow table, which is constructed iteratively offline as a set of chains relating the secret key to the cipher output,” says Lu. “When an output is received during an attack, the attacker identifies the relevant chain in the rainbow table and regenerates it, which gives a result that is very like to be the secret key of the cipher.”
Using two specific exploits, Lu’s team was able to reduce the effective complexity of the key to a level that allowed a rainbow table to be constructed in 55 days using consumer computer hardware, making possible a successful online attack, in most cases within just nine seconds.
Scientists and other creative thinkers began to realize Feynman’s nanotechnological visions.
In the spirit of Feynman’s insight, and in response to the challenges he issued as a way to inspire scientific and engineering creativity, electrical and computer engineers at UC Santa Barbara have developed a design for a functional nanoscale computing device. The concept involves a dense, three-dimensional circuit operating on an unconventional type of logic that could, theoretically, be packed into a block no bigger than 50 nanometers on any side.
“Novel computing paradigms are needed to keep up with the demand for faster, smaller and more energy-efficient devices,” said Gina Adam, postdoctoral researcher at UCSB’s Department of Computer Science and lead author of the paper “Optimized stateful material implication logic for three dimensional data manipulation,” published in the journal Nano Research. “In a regular computer, data processing and memory storage are separated, which slows down computation. Processing data directly inside a three-dimensional memory structure would allow more data to be stored and processed much faster.”
While efforts to shrink computing devices have been ongoing for decades — in fact, Feynman’s challenges as he presented them in his 1959 talk have been met — scientists and engineers continue to carve out room at the bottom for even more advanced nanotechnology. A nanoscale 8-bit adder operating in 50-by-50-by-50 nanometer dimension, put forth as part of the current Feynman Grand Prize challenge by the Foresight Institute, has not yet been achieved. However, the continuing development and fabrication of progressively smaller components is bringing this virus-sized computing device closer to reality, said Dmitri Strukov, a UCSB professor of computer science.
“Our contribution is that we improved the specific features of that logic and designed it so it could be built in three dimensions,” he said.
Key to this development is the use of a logic system called material implication logic combined with memristors — circuit elements whose resistance depends on the most recent charges and the directions of those currents that have flowed through them. Unlike the conventional computing logic and circuitry found in our present computers and other devices, in this form of computing, logic operation and information storage happen simultaneously and locally. This greatly reduces the need for components and space typically used to perform logic operations and to move data back and forth between operation and memory storage. The result of the computation is immediately stored in a memory element, which prevents data loss in the event of power outages — a critical function in autonomous systems such as robotics.
In addition, the researchers reconfigured the traditionally two-dimensional architecture of the memristor into a three-dimensional block, which could then be stacked and packed into the space required to meet the Feynman Grand Prize Challenge.
“Previous groups show that individual blocks can be scaled to very small dimensions, let’s say 10-by-10 nanometers,” said Strukov, who worked at technology company Hewlett-Packard’s labs when they ramped up development of memristors and material implication logic. By applying those results to his group’s developments, he said, the challenge could easily be met.
The tiny memristors are being heavily researched in academia and in industry for their promising uses in memory storage and neuromorphic computing. While implementations of material implication logic are rather exotic and not yet mainstream, uses for it could pop up any time, particularly in energy scarce systems such as robotics and medical implants.
Researchers at Lancaster University’s Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do.
The system — called REx — is being developed with vast energy-hungry data centres in mind. By being able to rapidly adjust to optimally deal with a huge multitude of tasks, servers controlled by REx would need to do less processing, therefore consuming less energy.
REx works using ‘micro-variation’ — where a large library of building blocks of software components (such as memory caches, and different forms of search and sort algorithms) can be selected and assembled automatically in response to the task at hand.
“Everything is learned by the live system, assembling the required components and continually assessing their effectiveness in the situations to which the system is subjected,” said Dr Barry Porter, lecturer at Lancaster University’s School of Computing and Communications. “Each component is sufficiently small that it is easy to create natural behavioural variation. By autonomously assembling systems from these micro-variations we then see REx create software designs that are automatically formed to deal with their task.
“As we use connected devices on a more frequent basis, and as we move into the era of the Internet of Things, the volume of data that needs to be processed and distributed is rapidly growing. This is causing a significant demand for energy through millions of servers at data centres. An automated system like REx, able to find the best performance in any conditions, could offer a way to significantly reduce this energy demand,” Dr Porter added.
In addition, as modern software systems are increasingly complex — consisting of millions of lines of code — they need to be maintained by large teams of software developers at significant cost. It is broadly acknowledged that this level of complexity and management is unsustainable. As well as saving energy in data centres, self-assembling software models could also have significant advantages by improving our ability to develop and maintain increasingly complex software systems for a wide range of domains, including operating systems and Internet infrastructure.
REx is built using three complementary layers. At the base level a novel component-based programming language called Dana enables the system to find, select and rapidly adapt the building blocks of software. A perception, assembly and learning framework (PAL) then configures and perceives the behaviour of the selected components, and an online learning process learns the best software compositions in real-time by taking advantage of statistical learning methods known as ‘linear bandit models’.
The work is presented in the paper ‘REx: A Development Platform and Online Learning Approach for Runtime Emergent Software Systems’ at the conference ‘OSDI ’16 12th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation’. The research has been partially supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), and also a PhD scholarship of Brazil.
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If you are searching for a cash advance but have lower than stellar credit history, try to apply for the loan by using a loan provider that can not examine your credit report. Currently there are plenty of diverse loan companies out there that will nevertheless give financial loans to those with bad credit or no credit rating.
Be careful in relation to handing out your personal information and facts when looking for online payday loans. Only hand out private data (e.g. Interpersonal Stability quantity, banking account details) to reputable firms. To prevent this, explore the company’s reputation well before handling them.
The most important tip when taking out a payday loan is always to only use whatever you can repay. Rates with payday cash loans are insane higher, and by taking out greater than you can re-shell out from the due particular date, you may be having to pay a great deal in curiosity costs.
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Ensure that you learn how, and once you may pay back the loan even before you get it. Get the bank loan settlement did the trick to your price range for your next spend times. Then you can assure you pay the cash rear. If you cannot pay off it, you will definately get stuck paying out financing extension fee, in addition to more interest.
Before you sign about the dotted collection to get a payday advance, consult with the local Better Company Bureau initially. Make certain the business you deal with is respected and goodies customers with admiration. Many companies on the market are supplying payday advance companies an incredibly awful track record, and you don’t want to become a fact.
In case you have a financial debt to cover, don’t run away from it. Paycheck creditors are recognized to use daunting personal debt collectors who are going to cause anguish for you personally and others surrounding you whenever you get behind. Try and purchase an extension in the event you can’t entirely repay the financing soon enough.
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It’s really a dream come true to keep a home full of young children and be allowed to be home more to take care of them. Additionally, it may result in aggravation because income frequently will become restricted one sets out to search for alternative routes to generate income. There are numerous tips that can bring in several cash. If a mama is usually home anyhow maybe she could collect a few dollars babysitting for friends. She can try out running a blog or performing some freelance writing. Sorting through the attic and selling goods online auctions might still make some dollars. If you want to try a far more innovative means of attracting supplemental income, discover this info here on using the stock market.
There are some stocks that lots of believe are sure to make extra cash. Facebook, for example, is generally regarded as a good wager. Your stocks and options are generally constantly generating revenue for investors. Traders are the ideal gamble for details. You can observe her explanation here concerning the reason why a great thought and in what way it really works. It obviously has a little bit of money to begin investing. How much money depends upon what you might afford and exactly how excellent the particular inventory is usually. Always examine with a stockbroker before making virtually any expenditure choices.
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Visit Website, and you’ll notice that the quantity of ways by which a person might earn a living in a home office today, has never ever been higher. Folks these days have the option to do contract work and labor through the Internet for folks they’ve got never ever fulfilled and firms they may have by no means visited. They’re able to start-up something that is entirely exclusive and also fresh, and operate a organization fully over the web by way of a site. They can execute a number of responsibilities or maybe offer you their own certain form of expertise to other people for their fee. No matter his or her hobbies, they are going to find plenty of different opportunities.
It is usually a great plan for you to put a little funds aside. You will never know if there might be an emergency. Your car or truck might break down. There could be impairment identified throughout the house. Medical problems can easily wipe out a savings quickly. What would come about if you lost your livelihood – even in the short term? These kinds of monetary unfortunate occurrences wouldn’t be as undesirable in case there was clearly a substantial bank account. A lot of people struggle to lay money aside on a daily routine basis. This leads folks to trying to find ventures that can operate for them. This Site is a superb place to begin whenever one is thinking about coming into the stock market world.
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The Importance Of Using Broadband Internet The following information will give you the reasons why more and more people invest their time and money in using broadband for fast internet access. If your purpose is to have an advanced and a fast access on the internet then it would be best to use broadband. That is why if you want to decrease the page load time then it would be best to use broadband as your internet provider. The efficiency that they are able to provide in terms of internet connectivity is one of the reasons why many people subscribe to it. Those things mentioned earlier makes them different from other internet service providers in the market. There those internet connections that can only provide limited internet connectivity to their clients such as those used on the telephone lines. If you want to search online with an internet speed exceeding 58 kbps then it would be best for you to use broadband internet. Another attribute which makes broadband stand out from other internet providers is their advance technology. Broadband internet also enable their users to send and receive data in a hassle free manner. The data processing is also faster if you will use broadband internet. This way users are able to connect to different websites easily. You don’t need to worry with regards to the internet speed whenever you download images, songs and even videos because the internet connection is still fast. It is also possible for you to have a downloading speed for 200 kpbs and above. Fast internet connection is not just beneficial for people who wants to spend some leisure time but also for business owners which relies on them. In addition the transmission process of data, audio signals, motion pictures, images and other things can be send in varying frequencies. And so if you want to send your files the fastest way possible then it would be best for you to use it. There are also high capacity channels that this internet provider can give to people. There are also sub channels found in those tunnels which allows them to transfer data the fastest way possible. Another thing about these sub channels is that they are well protected form those signal interventions or disruptions. It would also be best for you to use wifi or satellite for the broadband because the distance will not affect internet connectivity. Whatever type of media and technology you are going to use, broadband works perfectly fine so it is quite advantageous on your part. Modem and telephone line is a must if you are going to use the dial up connection which was used long ago. And as of today, more and more people use broadband internet connection because of its fast internet speed and connectivity.Questions About Services You Must Know the Answers To
Why Businesses Need Web Developers
Because of the advancement of our technology, our lives has changed so much in every point that we could take and this is particularly true even for businesses today. The development of the internet has led us to a fast paced world where everyone would need to cope up with the speed of how everything changes and it also made everything so much faster for us making everything convenient and much more comfortable.
Business owners have already seen the power of the internet and what it can do to our world because most of the people nowadays will have their own connection of the internet.
People can easily acquire and share any kind of information or details about anything on the internet which we can view as a webpage. Today, businesses have their own website that we can find on the internet and this is because of the fact that most people would just go to the internet if they are going to look for something and this includes different products and services from different businesses.
No matter how small a business can be, it is very important that they are able to set up their own website so that people can easily what their business is all about and aside from that, they need to keep up with their competitors through making a website for their business. Since the beginning of the internet age, there are still business owners who refuse to adapt to this change and still think that their old methods of marketing their business is better but now they are nowhere to be found because most of them have already been closed or bankrupted.
You should know that the creation of websites is not something that anyone could do, only people who have knowledge in web developing can create a website and it would take years for someone to fully master creating a website for themselves. This pushes business owners to find professionals that are able to create websites for their business. It will be a difficult process for business owners to personally learn how to make their own website even with all the information already laid out for them on the internet because it will take so much time from them which they may use for managing their business.
Today, there are a lot of web developers that you can easily find using the internet, there are individuals who can make them and there are also companies who accept clients who wish to have their websites made. You need to make some effort in finding the right people to make your website so that you will not just throw out your money on the wrong investment.
Tips to Consider to Obtain High Quality Blossoms Has it ever come to you why people desire flowers? The whole flower business is driven by the desire to have fine things in life. Having glamorous homes, places of works, dinner tables and a whole lot of other places makes people feel good about them. Love is spread through giving out gifts adorned with vibrant blossoms. Flowers are desired by everyone. Gift baskets adorned with flowers makes people presented with them feel wanted and loved. Beautiful flower designs make a good sight for the eyes to behold. There is a whole lot of meanings represented by different flowers of various colors. Every color has a different meaning in every various community. It is crucial to look for bouquets that have colors that mean well in your town. Florists in Toronto are distinct since they have branded their flower products. Differentiation of brands has been done in Toronto concerning flower studios. The target customers are reached through branding. There are flower studios that promote the local flower industry by buying flowers from local farmers and also help to preserve the environment. The flower shops obtain flowers from local farmers thereby creating a level playing field for the local farmers. There are flower workshops that deal in exotic breeds of flowers. The flower studios largely depend on foreign flower producers, countries from Europe and South America provides the flower studios with blossoms. The business of flowers is enormous.
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An amazing picture is created by flower arrangements on the tables, the flowers that give such a beautiful picture are mainly from seasonal flowers like lilies. Seasonal flowers gives out beautiful flower arrangements. Local farmers in Canada provide seasonal flowers like tulips.
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The attractive colors of tulips are popular with many people. A bunch of tulips would make your sweetheart melt with love for you. People love to use roses for many special occasions because they are classic kind of flowers. People love roses for their range of different colors. The flower studios in Toronto deals mainly in rose flowers obtained from Europe and South America. If you need to surprise your loved one with a gift incorporate a well-designed bunch of rose flowers and for sure you will forever hold a special place in the heart of your special someone. By visiting a flower shop you could negotiate for a great deal, that saves your money and provides you with the quality blossoms. Florists who have the expertise in flower arrangements will help you get the flower basket you need, whether it is flower designs for corporate events or birthday parties, anniversaries or giftware, and much more, it is possible with flower designers have the knowledge and skills in flower business and design. Therefore make a move today and spread love through vibrant, high quality blossoms from flower shops in your neighborhood.
Tips in Choosing the Right Broadband Internet Service Provider With the kind of technology that we have today, there are many people who are using the internet and most of them are using the broadband internet for their personal and commercial use which is very important for their studies, leisure and for businesses purposes as well. There are also many vendors or suppliers of broadband internet because they know that they have already a market for this kind of technology since almost all people now a day in our society are using the broadband internet. There are many companies who are offering their broadband internet services and with this you should be able to know some tips or guides on how can you choose the right company who will provide you with a fast and reliable internet connection. For you to be able to avail of a good and reliable broadband internet service, you can also ask referrals from your family, friends, relatives and even colleagues because they might have a provider already. There are also profile or background of these companies over the internet so that you can also check if they are really experts in this kind of broadband internet service and you do not need to waste your time and money in doing so.
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Another thing for you to consider is the price of the broadband internet service because there are many internet speed for this kind of service and you should be able to know on what would be the affordable and acceptable price for you. The internet speed of the broadband internet service is very important for you to also consider since you must be able to determine the speed that you would want to use for your home or for your business as well.
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What to Consider When Choosing a Digital Marketing Agency One of the challenges you may have at one time or another is deciding which digital marketing agency to hire for your marketing project. Despite the challenge, you will still need to market your business to achieve your sales objectives. You will come across many online marketing agencies that you can work with. Most agencies can help you with multiple online marketing activities such as search engine optimization and web design. What should you consider when looking for an agency? Here are some tips to follow to find the right marketing agency. Determine Your Needs Consider the needs of your business when looking for a digital marketing company. Consider both the short and long term needs of your business before starting to search for an agency. Come up with a list of immediate requirements. For example, you may need your website upgraded to reflect your brand as soon as possible. Sometimes, your requirement may be to get traffic, improve your social media presence, digital PR and so on. The next step after determining the needs of your business is to set specific goals that you wish to attain. For example, if you need traffic, how many visitors would you like your blog to receive? If conversion optimization is your goal, what metrics will be used to measure the success of the marketing?
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Come up with realistic goals for the digital marketing activities you would like to undertake. Consider your previous goals and current state of your business when coming up with the goals. If you do not set any goals, it will be difficult to know whether you are succeeding or failing at the marketing activities you need.
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When you have come up with the goals you would like to achieve, finding the right agency to work with will be easier. Make sure the company you choose has worked on similar projects to yours in the past. Specialization of the Agency One of the things you may grapple with is whether to hire an agency specialized in working with B2B or B2C companies. Some agencies can successfully implement strategies used by one segment of clients for the needs of others. While consumers in B2B and B2C markets are different in their level of purchase involvement, some valuable lessons can be drawn from both sides. As a result, it is better to choose an agency that has specialized in both B2B and B2C marketing. Choosing an agency that works with both B2B and B2C clients has a number of advantages. Such an agency will know how to handle the challenges that its clients face in marketing their business, products, services, brands and connecting with the consumer groups. Having a historical knowledge in various market segments can prove valuable when coming up with strategies for marketing your business.
The Importance of Improved Customer Experience For Your Brand By definition, customer experience is referred to as a brand’s response to customer interaction with the definite purpose of meeting the needs and expectations of clients, which in turn leads to increased satisfaction and eventually, customer loyalty. For businesses and startup companies, it is crucial to build a positive customer experience. This is because if you’re selling any product or offering some type of service, your business’ success depends in its entirety on how the consumer market thinks of your product or service. Because there always is the existence of competition, you want to convince consumers that your company is the one they should pick. To realize this objective, what you need is a vastly improved customer experience strategy. Improved Customer Satisfaction Maximizing customer satisfaction is something only a few companies out there focus on. If you really intend to kick start your company’s success the soonest possible time, you need to apply a strategy that centers on the improvement of customer experience.
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Promotes the Likelihood of Having Repeat Customers
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The application of a customer experience improvement program will be the best way to revive the old concept of customer loyalty. Many so-called market experts would say that in today’s level of competition in any business industry, there no longer is such a thing as having repeat customers. Nevertheless, it’s difficult to agree with that line of thinking. The principle is quite simple, really; the better you treat your clients the more likely they’ll purchase something from you once again. High Probability of Increased Referrals and Advocacy By way of creating topnotch customer experience and making sure you always make it a point to go beyond the standards of customer service, you allow yourself to create a customer who eventually will become more of an advocate of your business or company. As this happens, they will be very interested in recommending your business or company to someone else. Competitive Advantage Finally, there is very little doubt that a better customer experience strategy will translate to the creation of that much needed competitive advantage. If you are to look into the kind of environment the business industry is facing right now, getting a competitive edge is something very essential and crucial. If you sell one product, it is for certain that there also are hundreds or even thousands of other companies out there that sell the same. And considering that most of your competitors have been selling products similar to yours for years now, it only means you will have step it up in terms of getting the opportunity to keep up. The most effective and proven way to do that is to give your clients the best experience they can get from purchasing your product or service.