The encryption scheme used for second generation (2G) mobile phone data can be hacked within seconds by exploiting weaknesses and using common hardware, researches at Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, show. The ease of the attack shows an urgent need for the 2G Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) encryption scheme to be updated.
GSM was first deployed 25 years ago and has since become the global standard for mobile communications, used in nearly every country and comprising more than 90 per cent of the global user base.
“GSM uses an encryption scheme called the A5/1 stream cipher to protect data,” explains Jiqiang Lu from the A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research. “A5/1 uses a 64-bit secret key and a complex keystream generator to make it resistant to elementary attacks such as exhaustive key searches and dictionary attacks.”
Any encryption scheme can be hacked given sufficient time and data, so security engineers usually try to create an encryption scheme that would demand an unfeasible amount of time to crack. But, as GSM gets older, weaknesses in the A5/1 cipher and advances in technology have rendered GSM communications susceptible to attack.
Straightforward ‘brute force’ attacks by guessing the secret key from the data stream are still intensively time consuming, and although A5/1 was reported to have been successfully attacked in 2010, the details of the attack were kept secret. By exploiting weaknesses in the A5/1 cipher, Lu and his colleagues have now demonstrated the first real-time attack using a relatively small amount of data.
“We used a rainbow table, which is constructed iteratively offline as a set of chains relating the secret key to the cipher output,” says Lu. “When an output is received during an attack, the attacker identifies the relevant chain in the rainbow table and regenerates it, which gives a result that is very like to be the secret key of the cipher.”
Using two specific exploits, Lu’s team was able to reduce the effective complexity of the key to a level that allowed a rainbow table to be constructed in 55 days using consumer computer hardware, making possible a successful online attack, in most cases within just nine seconds.
Scientists and other creative thinkers began to realize Feynman’s nanotechnological visions.
In the spirit of Feynman’s insight, and in response to the challenges he issued as a way to inspire scientific and engineering creativity, electrical and computer engineers at UC Santa Barbara have developed a design for a functional nanoscale computing device. The concept involves a dense, three-dimensional circuit operating on an unconventional type of logic that could, theoretically, be packed into a block no bigger than 50 nanometers on any side.
“Novel computing paradigms are needed to keep up with the demand for faster, smaller and more energy-efficient devices,” said Gina Adam, postdoctoral researcher at UCSB’s Department of Computer Science and lead author of the paper “Optimized stateful material implication logic for three dimensional data manipulation,” published in the journal Nano Research. “In a regular computer, data processing and memory storage are separated, which slows down computation. Processing data directly inside a three-dimensional memory structure would allow more data to be stored and processed much faster.”
While efforts to shrink computing devices have been ongoing for decades — in fact, Feynman’s challenges as he presented them in his 1959 talk have been met — scientists and engineers continue to carve out room at the bottom for even more advanced nanotechnology. A nanoscale 8-bit adder operating in 50-by-50-by-50 nanometer dimension, put forth as part of the current Feynman Grand Prize challenge by the Foresight Institute, has not yet been achieved. However, the continuing development and fabrication of progressively smaller components is bringing this virus-sized computing device closer to reality, said Dmitri Strukov, a UCSB professor of computer science.
“Our contribution is that we improved the specific features of that logic and designed it so it could be built in three dimensions,” he said.
Key to this development is the use of a logic system called material implication logic combined with memristors — circuit elements whose resistance depends on the most recent charges and the directions of those currents that have flowed through them. Unlike the conventional computing logic and circuitry found in our present computers and other devices, in this form of computing, logic operation and information storage happen simultaneously and locally. This greatly reduces the need for components and space typically used to perform logic operations and to move data back and forth between operation and memory storage. The result of the computation is immediately stored in a memory element, which prevents data loss in the event of power outages — a critical function in autonomous systems such as robotics.
In addition, the researchers reconfigured the traditionally two-dimensional architecture of the memristor into a three-dimensional block, which could then be stacked and packed into the space required to meet the Feynman Grand Prize Challenge.
“Previous groups show that individual blocks can be scaled to very small dimensions, let’s say 10-by-10 nanometers,” said Strukov, who worked at technology company Hewlett-Packard’s labs when they ramped up development of memristors and material implication logic. By applying those results to his group’s developments, he said, the challenge could easily be met.
The tiny memristors are being heavily researched in academia and in industry for their promising uses in memory storage and neuromorphic computing. While implementations of material implication logic are rather exotic and not yet mainstream, uses for it could pop up any time, particularly in energy scarce systems such as robotics and medical implants.
Researchers at Lancaster University’s Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do.
The system — called REx — is being developed with vast energy-hungry data centres in mind. By being able to rapidly adjust to optimally deal with a huge multitude of tasks, servers controlled by REx would need to do less processing, therefore consuming less energy.
REx works using ‘micro-variation’ — where a large library of building blocks of software components (such as memory caches, and different forms of search and sort algorithms) can be selected and assembled automatically in response to the task at hand.
“Everything is learned by the live system, assembling the required components and continually assessing their effectiveness in the situations to which the system is subjected,” said Dr Barry Porter, lecturer at Lancaster University’s School of Computing and Communications. “Each component is sufficiently small that it is easy to create natural behavioural variation. By autonomously assembling systems from these micro-variations we then see REx create software designs that are automatically formed to deal with their task.
“As we use connected devices on a more frequent basis, and as we move into the era of the Internet of Things, the volume of data that needs to be processed and distributed is rapidly growing. This is causing a significant demand for energy through millions of servers at data centres. An automated system like REx, able to find the best performance in any conditions, could offer a way to significantly reduce this energy demand,” Dr Porter added.
In addition, as modern software systems are increasingly complex — consisting of millions of lines of code — they need to be maintained by large teams of software developers at significant cost. It is broadly acknowledged that this level of complexity and management is unsustainable. As well as saving energy in data centres, self-assembling software models could also have significant advantages by improving our ability to develop and maintain increasingly complex software systems for a wide range of domains, including operating systems and Internet infrastructure.
REx is built using three complementary layers. At the base level a novel component-based programming language called Dana enables the system to find, select and rapidly adapt the building blocks of software. A perception, assembly and learning framework (PAL) then configures and perceives the behaviour of the selected components, and an online learning process learns the best software compositions in real-time by taking advantage of statistical learning methods known as ‘linear bandit models’.
The work is presented in the paper ‘REx: A Development Platform and Online Learning Approach for Runtime Emergent Software Systems’ at the conference ‘OSDI ’16 12th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation’. The research has been partially supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), and also a PhD scholarship of Brazil.
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First, you have to recognize the fact that cost plays a major role in having these ecommerce business website designs accomplished. It will greatly help that you consider how these ecommerce business website designs can be great with the right graphics, photos and videos so you can make sure how everything can always be able to offer the best information to customers as well. Recognize the fact that these ecommerce business website design are gonna be great for your businesses as well. The main benefit of having these ecommerce business website design services is that you can realize how the business can fulfill and meet their objectives for all the needs of these companies. These developers can do everything to actually offer you with the best ecommerce business website design services. They can be able to offer these ecommerce business website design with their contracts.
Important Factors to Know About when Looking for a Reputable Website Developer for E-Commerce Website When running a business, to have a working and effective website to help you along in attractive and converting visitors to customers is really important. Generally speaking, it really is important that you will have to check and ensure that you are investing accordingly since choosing the right one only needs one mistake to turn all your money and time to waste. Technically speaking, to find the right website developer for ecommerce website is something that you should be concerned about because there are so many things that you will have to check and look out for. To help you out, we will be talking more about the critical things that you should look into so you will end up hiring the best website developer. Budget is a very important thing that you should be concerned about and it will definitely be in your best interest to make sure that you will check and secure that you have an estimate on how much money you are willing to put on the tables. Depending on how much money you are willing to spend will be the result of the website you are looking forward to have at the end of the day. It really is true that if you do decide to invest more, you will also get to assure that you will have a far higher quality level of website done at the end of the day.
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Keep in mind that among the things that you will want to check is that they should have been actively providing quality service in the industry for a number of years. Doing so will then give you the assurance that you will work with a professional that really knows what factors to check and whatnot to provide quality service. Keep in mind that you should check and ensure as well that you will check the review and the feedback that they have in the industry because technically speaking, there should then be a number of valuable information you could use to help you along in securing a great find.
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Keep in mind that you will have to value communication as well because this alone holds a lot of weight when it comes to helping you achieve your goals. The reason why you should opt to have your decision followed at the end of the day because it is your business that will be put at risk. See to it that you will incorporate the things we had mentioned, coupled with the specifics that you have to help you achieve your goal to ensure that you will hire the right website development for ecommerce website.
The Role of SEO for Your Online Business
With the advent of the internet, people are searching many things that they can think of, and due to this, many businesses were formed to cater to these different needs. If you are promoting your product or service through the web, you should consider having some techniques that will push your online business.
A very important technique among these methods that will be of big help if your business is using online, is called SEO or search engine optimization.
With the use of SEO, your business will be promoted to a high ranking place on the search engine pages.
By being among on the top ranking search, you are leading many visitors to know your business and the products or services that you can provide.
Before reaching to the level mentioned previously, your initial step is to develop the website of your company, then build the back links and article content that can serve as great tools of marketing.
The techniques of SEO will empower your website and will bring in the benefits to the owner in terms of big sales. While your brand or product or service is made popular among other similar businesses, you might as well take advantage also of the increasing traffic of your website.
While you are getting better at how SEO techniques process, you will be effective also in handling keywords that you will be coming across.
Be reminded that you have to be sure to be thorough in your keyword research even before you create your website. It is advisable that you find the best, the most relevant, and most applicable for the marketing of your products or services.
And so, let us look closely the benefits that you will get by using the SEO techniques.
First is you will get free targeted traffic to your company website from many popular social media companies and others that are available in the cyberspace.
Another benefit is that your company can be displayed among other companies dealing with the same business as yours by a mere introduction of the name of your company.
Thousands of visitors will find you by just simply introducing inside the search engine bars the keywords included in the content of your site pages. Therefore, it would be a great idea to have in your keywords the title tags of the article and consequently your article and web page will be located easily.
Another benefit that you can get through a SEO company is that they can assign professionals to help have a better optimization of your website to increase your online visitors.
The Main Benefits That Managed WordPress Hosting Can Offer These days, the popularity of WordPress have not declined and continue to gain compliments from more and more users. Because of the many features that it can offer, it’s one of the recommended platform or CMS by famous bloggers and website owners. All website owners and bloggers want their website to load quickly. Site speed is very important because it affects the experience of the visitors and according to the statistics, clients or customers stay away from slow loading websites. With manage WordPress hosting, you can expect your site to load fast because these type of hosting normally have fewer sites. The search engine will make sure that it displays the best websites that match to the user’s needs and it’s will consider the site’s loading speed. In order to make sure that the users will be happy with the search results, it will ensure that they will only get fast loading websites.
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By choosing a managed WordPress hosting, you can allow it to update your WordPress whenever a new version is available. It’s really important to keep your website updated because of the WordPress updates are made make sure that your website is safe and secure.
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Since managed WordPress hosting are managed by professionals and is dedicated to WordPress websites only, you can rest assured that they can address critical issues that your website may encounter quickly. These type of hosting have a software that can detect is a hacker has attempted to hack your website. Aside from the fact that websites that are infected with viruses are harmful not only for you but for the website’s users as well, it can also affect your ranking because crawler is able to detect viruses. But with a competent WordPress hosting, hackers will surely won’t be able to do it’s job. Also, by choosing a managed WordPress hosting, you can always seek help from their staff and you can expect a quick respond. Because their technician and staff are dedicated with WordPress hosting, you can expect that they have much knowledge about managing WordPress websites. With manage WordPress hosting, you can expect your site to be working all the time. Their servers are reserved to only few numbers of websites to make sure that the storage space will not run low. Another important advantages of using a WordPress hosting is that there will be automatic backup depending on your preferences. Not only is a backup important if a hacker infected a virus on your website, but it’s also essential if you want to revert to a version before you made changes. In conclusion, choosing a managed WordPress hosting is very beneficial and all you have to is manage the content of your website and leave the rest to your manage WordPress hosting.
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How to Pick a Web Host So you have a business website that you’d like to be hosted professionally. There are tons of paid web hosting companies today. How do you know which one is best for you? Below are the most important things you should consider: Technical Requirements
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This is the biggest question of all. You need a web hosting provider that can meet your site’s demands. For instance, how much storage space will you need, and does the cost fit your budget? How much bandwidth will they allow per month? If you exceed your monthly allotment, how much do you have to pay? To avoid surprises, get your answers in advance.
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The Best Ways to Make Money Online Joe Bulik also known as Home biz Joe is the father of all full-time internet marketers, home businesses consultant, the vice president of all ventures and a consultant of all stunts. Home biz Joe is the successful owner of all internet business that allows him to work from the comfort of his home. Home biz Joe has taken the responsibility of training people on how to come up with dynamic business just by the use of a computer and internet. Joe has become a trainer, a coach, and a teacher to all those who have become frustrated in the in their businesses and make them successful online workers. A myth that Home biz Joe is that it is difficult to start up an online business and begin making money online. He believes that a site that can take you a few hours to can make you earn from it for very many years. Home biz Joe advises people that they can start by creating their own site for them to start making money through the online platform. Wheather you have an experience in creating a website of it is your first time to create one there are few things to consider. The first thing to consider is how you intend to start making money from the site. If you have an idea of how you are going to make money from the site you have created then you are ahead of the game. For those who don’t have an idea of how they will be making money online Home biz Joe has given a few options you can choose from. The first thing you can choose from is creating a blog site which suits the area for your interest where you can add them to the Google’s AdSence and you will earn money when people click on the advertisement from your site. You can consider selling advertisement spaces from your site as the second option. The third option that can be used is doing affiliate programs. In the affiliate programs you add advertisements on your site from a company that acts like the middlemen between the company you want to advertise for and your site.
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Thinking about all that individuals are experiencing in today’s overall economy, it’s not surprising pay day loan solutions is really a fast-increasing business. If you realise your self considering a payday advance, keep reading to understand more about them and how they can aid get you from a current financial disaster quickly.
Think about each of the cash advance options before choosing a payday loan. Some loan companies demand payment in 14 days and nights, there are several lenders who now provide a 30 day term which could meet your needs greater. Distinct payday loan loan providers may also provide distinct repayment options, so pick one that suits you.
Steer clear of taking payday loans out, when you are currently mired inside a economic crisis. When you find yourself having difficulty generating stops fulfill, it seems that this is basically the best time for any cash advance. However, the financing is only the initial step. You must also spend it back again, together with charges, and a big interest rate. If you fail to manage to pay for the loan with the next paycheck, a payday loan is just not a sensible idea.
Usually do not use more income than you really can afford to pay back. Before applying for a payday advance, you must figure out how much money it will be easy to pay back, for instance by borrowing a sum that your particular up coming paycheck will handle. Ensure you account for the interest rate too.
If you are trying to get a pay day loan on-line, be sure that you contact and speak with an agent prior to getting into any information in the internet site. A lot of fraudsters imagine to get payday advance agencies to get your hard earned dollars, so you should be sure that you can achieve an actual person.
Usually do not try and hide from pay day loan suppliers, if come across personal debt. Cash advance companies often use frightening personal debt hobbyists, which will harass yourself and your family, if you don’t payback your loan with time. So, in the event you can’t pay back your cash advance in full around the agreed payback date, you ought to speak to the pay day loan supplier, and work out an extension.
If you wish to make application for a payday loan, your best bet is to apply from nicely respected and well-liked creditors and websites. These internet websites have built an excellent standing, and also you won’t place yourself vulnerable to supplying vulnerable information and facts to some swindle or under a reputable loan provider.
If an urgent is here, and also you had to use the expertise of a paycheck financial institution, be sure to repay the payday cash loans as quickly as you can. A lot of people get on their own within an worse financial bind by not paying back the borrowed funds in a timely manner. No only these lending options have got a highest twelve-monthly proportion amount. They have costly additional fees which you will end up spending unless you pay back the financing punctually.
It is a great idea to buy all around before you decide with a pay day lender. Various lenders will offer diverse prices and fee distinct charges. Should you go for that first offer you receive, you might end up paying considerably more. Shopping around could save you a great deal of funds.
A payday loan is really a bank loan that is certainly because of on your own next payday. You require to remember, that any cash you will get needs to be repaid on that exact date. Through taking any longer than that to repay, the loan they are going to charge you a lot of costs.
Be sure that your cash advance contract is in British. Some rogue pay day loan firms publish their financial loan agreements in a international vocabulary, so that you can trick consumers into agreeing to undesirable terminology. Therefore, it is crucial that you simply check that you realize all of the text presented on your own payday advance contract prior to signing it.
Visit your nearby financial institution or lending institution and make application for a modest financial loan when you get a cash advance. While the method might be a little bit lengthier by using these businesses, you simply will not find yourself repaying around you are going to should you apply for a payday loan.
Though nobody should depend entirely on payday cash loans to have them through until the following salary, it is an alternative when money is required for an urgent problem like a expenses. Use payday loans sensibly and from time to time, and you ought to have no issue. Remember these tips for the upcoming time you need extra revenue!
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These flowers have been used to decorate homes as well, so these flowers can be the best choices when it comes to decorating homes and changing the way these flowers go.
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When it comes to these flower delivery companies, their services are designed so deliveries can be faster and if companies and individuals need these flowers on a regular basis, you do not need to place orders every time you need them, but they can be informed to deliver your flowers on the time and dates that you have specified. There are also several flower delivery companies that can offer a lot of flower species, such as roses, orchids, carnation and more and the popular ones in season, and these flower delivery companies can offer you with the flowers in different colors. Remember to have the best care when choosing these flower delivery companies because there are several colors that are intended for specific meanings for these flowers as well for all your needs.
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It is advisable to choose a florist who is associated with an expert group. Trustworthy florists usually belong to a specialist team since they can often play the role of the top at their crafts. And this is something which you can have a look at when choosing a good florist.
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One more thing to look out for would be to locate a florist having a wide selection of flowers. You ought to have a close examine their plants to be sure they are fresh and perfectly organized. If this is not the case, it means that they are not qualified enough to care for their flowers and so you cannot expect them to care for your flowers too. A florist that is good should know how to set up a great union and offer you with tip top services. They are in business, and also you are their customer. In case a florist treats you half-heartedly, they do not deserve to get your business and you should search for someone else. One sure solution to find a florist that is good will be to seek a recommendation from your buddies, business contacts, and family members. Each of them should have their florist that is favorite and you will acquire some valuable feedback from them. Take some time to research on a few florists before you make a decision to hire one.